With 50 million tons of e-waste produced yearly, the race is on to find a solution to the growing mound of electronic waste. Recycling is one solution, and the other option is reusing aging electronics, especially cell phones.
Smartphones use a host of rare elements, which can be recycled. Image used courtesy of Fairphone
Unfortunately, it is usually cheaper for manufacturers to use raw materials instead of recycling electronic waste. As a result, many recycling sites reject e-waste simply because it is uneconomical.
But now, new material sciences research from NC State and the American Chemical Society might change the game when it comes to reusing and recycling electronics. Beyond the research, there is the rising right-to-repair movement that could alter the consumer market significantly.
Dissolvable Substrates Yield Reusable Materials
Researchers at NC State recently developed a process for retrieving highly conductive silver nanowires from a soluble substrate. The process is said to be a low-cost technique that can result in up to four reuse cycles of the functional materials.
Reusing advanced materials reduces both cost and waste. Image used courtesy of NC State
While developing this technique, the researchers created a wearable health sensor constructed with silver nanowires and a polymer substrate.
After testing, the sensor was dissolved. The nanowire structure was then broken down using ultrasound. Finally, to ensure that the material maintained its performance specifications, it was built into a new sensor from the composite materials.
ACS Researchers Build Dissolvable Smart Watch
Keeping on with the notion of dissolvable electronics, a new study published in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces discusses a PCB prototype said to be dissolvable in water in under 40 hours. The PCB interconnects were built using a two-metal composite based on silver nanowire and zinc, which were printed onto a poly(vinyl alcohol) polymer and finally water sintered together.
Recycling a water-soluble smartwatch results in less e-waste. Image used courtesy of ACS
The fully functional smartwatch was housed in a polymer case, also dissolvable, which housed several non-dissolvable microelectronics, including passive components, LEDs, a microcontroller, and an OLED screen.
Although similar in approach to NC State, the American Chemical Society study demonstrates an avenue for pushing dissolvable components to commercialization.
Reducing Waste Through the Right-to-Repair Movement
For a long time, repairing household electronics has been viewed as an impractical activity. The rise of surface-mount technology made repair difficult. Further, the philosophy of planned obsolescence pushes consumers in a replace-over-repair mentality.
Even so, many governments and individuals alike are pushing for the “right to repair.” A new report reveals that a repair-based service industry could generate up to half a million jobs in the United Kingdom alone. While this movement has been ongoing for years, it has recently gained more traction as European countries embrace a circular economy—or the concept of keeping materials in constant use.
Repairable technology in the consumer economy only exists in limited applications, and corporations might take a financial hit were it to be developed extensively.
Will Designers’ Roles Change With E-Waste Management?
At face value, the results of this new research do not appear to affect the role of an electronics designer. ECAD software operates in the abstract and does not care if the interconnects are copper or silver nanowires. However, at a deeper level, there are some aspects of the job that become more complex. For example, how does EMI shielding fit in with a water-soluble smartwatch?
The right to repair, on the other hand, has the potential to significantly alter the design of electronics. Modular parts designed for service replacement of connectors, batteries, cameras, and a host of other electronic elements could become common. Replacing the batteries and USB connections on an aging cell phone, for instance, could significantly curb the e-waste yearly rate.
Are engineers a stakeholder in the life cycle maintenance of obsolescent technology, or does the onus fall on the consumer and corporations? Share your thoughts in the comments.
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